Straight (eds.). Deschamps, V. and J.D. The breeding status of the Hooded Warbler in Canada before 1949 remains uncertain, but given the northward range expansion in the global range, it seems likely that the breeding range of this species first expanded into Canada during the early 20th century. Calvert, A.M. and D. Badzinski. In The Birds of North America (P. G. Rodewald, editor). Effects of forest connectivity, habitat availability, and intraspecific biotic processes on range expansion: Hooded Warbler (Wilsonia citrina) as a model species. 2011). 2011. The Committee meets to consider status reports on candidate species. Chiver, I., L.J. Due to its predilection for early successional canopy gaps, this species consistently occurs at higher densities in mature forests that have been subject to selective logging within the past 2 to 20 years than in forests that have not been logged for at least 30 to 50 years (Annand and Thompson 1997; Robinson and Robinson 1999; Hetzel and Leberg 2006; Eng 2007). 2007. diameter-limit cuts), insect and disease outbreaks that eliminate a large number of mature trees, direct and indirect habitat damage caused by recreational vehicles, and housing estates and other development activities in or adjacent to woodlands (Environment Canada 2011). Ottawa. Hooded Warbler nesting success adjacent to group-selection and clearcut edges in a southeastern bottomland forest. There are now 34 warbler species within this genus (AOU 2011). Overall forest cover in southern Ontario has increased from historic lows and this species has recently expanded north and east into parts of southern Ontario with greater forest cover (see Habitat trends, and Canadian range). Fledglings being fed by their parents generally stay within the breeding territory but move into areas with dense shrubs and saplings in the 0-4 m understory layer (Eng 2007; Rush and Stutchbury 2008). Get Instant ID help for 650+ North American birds. Update COSEWIC status report on the Hooded Warbler Wilsonia citrina in COSEWIC assessment and update status report on the Hooded Warbler Wilsonia citrina in Canada. data). All Hooded Warblers breeding in Canada are within a single population and therefore only one designatable unit is considered in this report. The large SWCR site is on provincial Crown land that has recently been regulated as a Conservation Reserve under the Provincial Parks Act. 2011; BSC unpubl. More recent breeding occurrences (2006-2010), including records from an extensive targeted survey in 2007 (see Sampling Effort and Methods), fall within the 2001-05 EO polygon. ; Chiver et al. Available [accessed 30 April 2011]. How Much Habitat is Enough? Population estimates based on these counts that take changes in survey effort and efficiency into consideration indicate the population increased >300% from 1997 to 2007 (Table 2). Ottawa. Are there extreme fluctuations in number of mature individuals? Many people responded to a general request for information on the current status of Hooded Warbler in Canada including Lyle Friesen, Michel Gosselin, Patrick Nantel, Michele Rodrick, Ken Tuininga, Kari van Allen, and Patricia Workman. 1998. Loss and degradation of habitat at migration stopover sites and on the wintering grounds have been identified as potential threats, but the magnitude of these threats is unknown. 2004. During spring and fall migration, this species uses both the trans-gulf and circum-gulf migration paths to varying extents and is found in southern Florida and along the Gulf Coast. The paternity of Hooded Warbler nestlings has not been studied in Ontario. The species has also experienced a significant long-term increase in abundance in the core of its range in the United States, so there is an outside source for rescue. This estimate is consistent with observations in Ontario and Pennsylvania, with relatively few birds returning for more than 2 consecutive years and about half (23%-60+%) of the known age adults being second-year birds (Evans Ogden and Stutchbury 1996; Rush and Stutchbury 2008; BSC unpubl. Lacki, M.J., H.F. Yacek Jr. and M.D. Alfred A. Knopf, New York, NY, USA. OBBA2 incorporated the results of a targeted Hooded Warbler survey carried out in 2002 (see below). 732 pp. and S.K. Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa, ON. Pond, M.D. Starting in 1997, the Recovery Team initiated directed surveys to document the status, distribution and trends in the Hooded Warbler population in Canada (Friesen et al. James. website: http://www.fs.fed.us/atlas/bird/mcdd_6840.html [accessed September 2010]. Population counts and estimates for the Hooded Warbler in Canada, Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Wild Species 2005: The General Status of Species in Canada, NatureServe Explorer: An Online Encyclopedia of Life, Ontario Ministry of Muncipal Affairs and Housing, Generation time (usually average age of parents in the population). 2002; Eng 2007; Chiver et al. Bird Studies Canada, Port Rowan, ON. The total global breeding range (extent of occurrence) is approximately 2,000,000 km², while the total global wintering range is much smaller at approximately 750,000 km² (derived from Ridgeley et al. In the past decade, Hooded Warblers have expanded in the Greater Toronto Area, particularly in Durham Region and Northumberland County east of Toronto. 2010. If source-sink population dynamics are occurring at the continental scale, then small changes in the productivity of source populations in the US could have large impacts on the trajectory of the small Canadian population (Environment Canada 2011). The current draft of the proposed federal Recovery Strategy identifies 56 sites in Ontario with critical habitat for this species, with a total area of about 9000 ha. Extraterritorial movements of a forest songbird in a fragmented landscape. Forest Ecology and Management 260:1241-1250. Miller. data). Natural Heritage Information Center (NHIC). 89 pp. Effects of selective logging on breeding bird communities in bottomland hardwood forests in Louisiana. The breeding range of this species has been expanding northwards for at least 40 years. Global Change Biology 17:17-31. Stutchbury, and T.E. It breeds in eastern North America and across the eastern United States and into southernmost Canada (Ontario). Within the Carolinian region, Hooded Warblers are generally associated with areas of higher forest cover, such as Norfolk County and Niagara Region (Badzinski 2007). Ziolkowski, Jr, and W. A. 2011). COSEWIC status reports are working documents used in assigning the status of wildlife species suspected of being at risk. Intruders that are not swayed by visual displays may be chased or attacked. 2000). The Hooded Warbler is a long-distance migrant that breeds in eastern North America and winters in Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean. Pardieck, D.J. Moorman, C.E., D.C. Guynn Jr, and, J.C. Kilgo. Couturier (eds.). There are many environmental factors operating in concert at various scales that influence the status of the Hooded Warbler in Canada including habitat conditions (e.g., quality, quantity, and connectivity), biotic processes (e.g., productivity, survivorship and dispersal, social behaviour), and climate conditions (e.g., heat units, temperature extremes, precipitation, etc.). Forest bird response to regeneration practices in central hardwood forests. Predation rates did not differ between recently logged and undisturbed reference stands, or by patch size in two Ontario studies (Eng 2007; Melles 2007). Scarr, T.A., K.L. A. and A. S. Love. ): Atlas of the Breeding Birds of Ontario. Dunne, P. (2006). Canopy gap habitat can be accurately identified using fine spatial resolution Ikonos imagery but this approach is cost-prohibitive at a larger scale (Pasher et al. These rates are comparable to other studies of Hooded Warblers in Ontario (e.g., Eng 2007). within 1 m of the ground (Gartshore 1988; Bisson and Stutchbury 1998; Whittam et al. May. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia [accessed September 2010]. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Peterborough, ON. Norris, D.R, B.J.M. Is there an observed continuing decline in number of populations? Atlas of the Breeding Birds of Ontario, 2001-2005. Sutherland, pers. Stutchbury. Mark-recapture estimates of local survivorship (birds that survive and return to the same breeding site) for SWCR are 9.8% (SE=1.6%) for young, and 48.0% (SE=2.9%) for adults (Calvert and Badzinski in prep.). Gartshore.1987. 2000. 1998 surveys of Acadian Flycatchers and Hooded Warblers in Ontario. Compilation and analysis of long-term Hooded Warbler data from southern Ontario. New World Warblers(Order: Passeriformes, Family:Parulidae). Extirpated (XT) Breeding and non-breeding distribution of the Hooded Warbler (Ridgeley, Figure 2. Partners in Flight North American Landbird Conservation Plan. Species at Risk Act. 151 pp. 19 pp. Historical records of the Hooded Warbler have been summarized by Baillie (1925), Gartshore (1988), Austen et al. The Appalachian range of mountains running through east Tennessee is along the major eastern flyway and is a great spot to do some spring migration birding. and M.E. Twedt, D.J., J.M. The Hooded Warbler nests in moist deciduous and mixed forests from the lower Midwest and southern New England to the Gulf Coast. Journal of Wildlife Management 70(5):1416-1424. Sexual differences in gap-crossing ability of a forest songbird in a fragmented landscape revealed through radiotracking. 2004; Sauer et al. Hooded Warbler. Wildlife species description and significance. The Hooded Warbler flits through shrubby understories in eastern forests, flicking its tail to show off its white tail feathers. The Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) was created in 1977 as a result of a recommendation at the Federal-Provincial Wildlife Conference held in 1976. Habitat Identification and Mapping for the Acadian Flycatcher, Hooded Warbler and Prothonotary Warbler in Southern Ontario. Pitcher. The number of individuals (excluding dependent young) of each species heard (at any distance) or seen (within a 400 m radius circle) during each stop is counted, with singing males being detected most frequently. 2005. 2011). Longer-term changes in the extent and distribution of woodlands in southern Ontario have been described by Larson et al. Due to this species’ dependence on early-successional nesting habitat, Hooded Warbler occupancy of large sites tends to shift and vary over time and can fluctuate moderately (e.g., 11-23 territories at South Walsingham Forest from 1985-2002 and 37-67 territories at SWCR from 1999-2010, BSC unpubl. Forest Information Series, Province of Ontario, ON. Each point is surveyed once (3-minute point count) by an experienced birder during the breeding season. Heagy, A., and D. Badzinski. The Hooded Warbler is a long-distance migrant that breeds in eastern North America and winters in Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean. Competition for winter territories in a neotropical migrant: the role of age, sex and color. Efforts to model Hooded Warbler habitat in Ontario at a landscape scale using satellite imagery have had limited success because the coarse spatial and temporal resolution of the Landsat images are not well suited to identifying the specific fine-grained habitat requirements of this species (Pither 1997; Flaxman 2004; Pasher et al. Kyser, and L.M. The continued absence of breeding Hooded Warblers in the Kingston area is surprising given the proximity of breeding populations in New York, an increase in forest cover, and the species’ status as a regular rare spring migrant there for more than 30 years (Austen et al. Couturier (eds.). Last recorded on site in 1999 Federation of Ontario Naturalists, Don Mills, ON and Long Point Bird Observatory, Port Rowan, ON. The Hooded Warbler was first reported in Canada before 1860 at Hamilton, Ontario and it was considered “a rare migrant” in Ontario during the early 1900s (Baillie 1925). Females often wrap dead leaves around the bottom of the nest cup as well, making the nest look like a clump of dead leaves. 2011). comm., 2011). But as impressive as they are, these charismatic critters have nothing on the Blackpoll Warbler—an unassuming bird with one of the most ambitious migration routes on the planet. 32-48 In Cadman, M.D., D.A. The Hooded Warbler is protected under the Migratory Birds Convention Act in Canada and the United States. Cadman, P. Carson, K. Elliott, M.E. Wilson Bulletin 109(1):74-81. 2009. Tarof, S.A., B.J.M. Francis, and M.E. 2003; Heagy and Badzinski 2008). Breeding and non-breeding distribution of the Hooded Warbler (Ridgeley et al. Wilson Bulletin 115(3):277-284. On the wintering grounds, males and females defend separate territories, chipping at intruders: females in younger, scrubby forests and males in more mature forests. Austen, M.J.W., M.D. BBS routes consist of 50 roadside points along randomly selected, stratified routes across the United States and southern Canada. 2011). Ontario Landbird Conservation Plan: Lower Great Lakes/St. Link. 71 pp. Cadman, and P.A. Species at Risk Act: COSEWIC assessments and status reports, Population spatial structure and variability, Factors driving the population increase and range expansion, Acknowledgements and authorities contacted, Figure 1. 2007. The count of 436 territories reported in 2007 is almost five times the 88+ known territories reported in 1997, just 10 years earlier. Definition of the (DD) category revised in 2006. Version 2016.1. Planning decisions requiring municipal approval must be consistent with the PPS. 1988. 1994. Does male extra-territory foray effort affect fertilization success in hooded warblers Wilsonia citrina? Dispersal of many young and some adults over longer distances is considered likely but has not been documented (e.g., there are no banding encounters involving longer distance movements of birds captured or banded in Canada, Brewer et al. The breeding range within Canada has also expanded over time (see Canadian Range and Population Trends sections). Brown, D.R., T.W. 2004). There is no substantive evidence to support the alternate view that this species likely occurred widely in the extensive forest habitat present before European settlement but subsequently declined or disappeared due to habitat loss in the 1800s, as suggested in previous status reports (Page and Cadman 1994; James 2000). 1997; McCracken et al. Data from all sources show a consistent pattern of strong increases in the abundance and distribution of the known Hooded Warbler population in Canada. Long-distance dispersal patterns of male Cerulean Warblers (Dendroica cerulea) measured by stable-hydrogen isotopes. 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